Founded in September 1957 in Palo Alto, California by eight young engineers and scientists from Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation pioneered new products and technologies together with a youthful enthusiasm and manufacturing and marketing techniques that reshaped the semiconductor industry. See the cast of characters that launched the semiconductor industry.
Renee James, President of Intel, discusses internal changes in Intel's business models and explains why the chip-maker didn't catch on to mobile earlier on.
A good overview video by Steve Blank of how defense industry helped launch Silicon Valley. World War II set the stage for the creation and explosive growth of Silicon Valley, and the role of Frederick Terman and Stanford in working with government agencies (including the CIA and the National Security Agency) to set up companies in this area that sparked the creation of hundreds of other enterprises.